Chii chaunofanira kuita kana pasina mvumo yekuenzanisa sampling? mufananidzo

Chii chaunofanira kuita kana pasina mvumo yekuenzanisa sampling?

Inzwi sampling kana mimhanzi sampling inzira iri kushandiswa zvakanyanya apo zvidimbu zvenzwi zvinokopwa nemagetsi kuti zvizvishandise, kazhinji muchimiro chakagadziridzwa, mubasa idzva (remimhanzi), kazhinji nerubatsiro rwekombuta. Nekudaro, zvimedu zvinonzwika zvinogona kuve pasi pekodzero dzakasiyana-siyana, semhedzisiro yekuti sampling isina kubvumidzwa inogona kunge isiri pamutemo.

Sampling inoshandisa zvidimbu zvezwi zviripo. Kuumbwa, mazwi, kuita uye kurekodha kwezvimedu zvenzwi zvinogona kunge zviri pasi pekodzero. Kuumbwa uye mazwi anogona kuchengetedzwa nekodzero. Iko (kurekodha kwe) kuita kunogona kuchengetedzwa nekodzero yemuiti, uye phonogram (kurekodha) inogona kuchengetedzwa nekodzero yakabatana yemugadziri wephonogram. Chisungo chechipiri cheEU Copyright Directive (2/2001) chinopa munyori, mutambi, uye mugadziri wegiramufomu kodzero yakasarudzika yekuburitsa, iyo inosvika pakodzero yekubvumidza kana kurambidza kudhirowa kwe 'chinhu' chakachengetedzwa. Munyori anogona kunge ari muimbi uye/kana munyori wenziyo, vaimbi uye/kana vaimbi vanowanzova muimbi (Chinyorwa 29 pasi pemutemo weNeighboring Rights Act (NRA)) uye mugadziri wegiramufomu ndiye munhu anoita rekodhi rekutanga. , kana kuti yakagadzira uye inotakura njodzi yemari (Chinyorwa 1 pasi peNRA). Kana muimbi achinyora, achiita, kurekodha, uye kuburitsa nziyo dzake pachake pasi pehutungamiri hwake, mapato akasiyana aya akabatana mumunhu mumwe. Kodzero nekodzero dzinoperekedzana zvino zviri mumaoko emunhu mumwechete.

MuNetherlands, iyo Copyright Directive yakaitwa muCopyright Act (CA) neNRA, pakati pezvimwe zvinhu. Chikamu 1 cheCA chinochengetedza kodzero yemunyori. The Copyright Act inoshandisa izwi rekuti 'kubereka' pane 'kukopa', asi mukuita, mazwi ese ari maviri akafanana. Kodzero yekuberekesa yemuimbi uye mugadziri wephonogram inodzivirirwa neSection 2 ne6, zvakateerana, zveNRA. Kufanana neCopyright Directive, zvisungo izvi hazvitsanangure kuti chii chinoumba (chakazara kana chikamu) kubereka. Nenzira yekuenzanisira: Chikamu 13 cheCopyright Act chinopa izvozvo "Chero chakazara kana chidimbu kugadzirisa kana kutevedzera mune yakashandurwa fomu” inoumba kubereka. Saka kubereka kunosanganisira zvinopfuura 1-pa-1 kopi, asi hazvizivikanwe kuti ndeipi chirevo chinofanira kushandiswa kuongorora miganhu yemiganhu. Uku kushaikwa kwekujekesa kwakave nemhedzisiro pamaitiro einzwi sampling kwenguva yakareba. Iwo masample maartist aisaziva kana kodzero dzavo dzanga dzichityorwa.

Muna 2019, Dare reJustice reEuropean Union (CJEU) rakajekesa izvi muchikamu Pelham mutongo, zvichitevera mibvunzo yekutanga yakamutswa neGerman Bundesgerichtshof (BGH) (CJEU 29 Chikunguru 2019, C-476/17, ECLI:EU:C:2019:624). CJEU yakawana, pakati pezvimwe, kuti sampuli inogona kuve kudhindwa kwephonogiramu, zvisinei nehurefu hwemuenzaniso (para. 29). Naizvozvo, imwe yechipiri sampu inogona zvakare kuita kukanganisa. Mukuwedzera, zvakatemerwa kuti "uko, pakushandisa rusununguko rwake rwokutaura, mushandisi anonyora chidimbu chinonzwika kubva pagiramufomu kuti chishandiswe mubasa idzva, muchimiro chakachinjwa chisingaoneki munzeve, kushandiswa kwakadaro kunofanira kurangarirwa sokusaumba 'kuberekazve' mukati mezvinorehwa neChinyorwa 2(c) cheDirective 2001/29′ (ndima 31, chikamu chinoshanda chiri pasi pe1). Nokudaro, kana muenzaniso wakagadziridzwa nenzira yakadai kuti chidimbu chezwi chakatorwa pakutanga hachichazivikanwi kunzeve, hapana mubvunzo wekubudiswa kwephonogram. Kana zvakadaro, mvumo yekuenzanisa sampling kubva kune vane kodzero yakakodzera haifanirwe. Mushure mekudzoserwa kumashure kubva kuCJEU, iyo BGH yakatonga musi wa30 Kubvumbi 2020 mukati Metall kana Metall IV, umo yakataura nzeve iyo sampuli inofanira kunge isingazivikanwe: nzeve yeavhareji muteereri wemimhanzi (BGH 30 Kubvumbi 2020, I ZR 115/16 (Metall kana Metall IV), ndima. 29). Kunyangwe hazvo mitongo yeECJ neBGH ine chekuita nekodzero inoenderana nemugadziri wephonogram, zvinogoneka kuti maitiro akaumbwa mumitongo iyi anoshandawo pakutyorwa nemuenzaniso wakanaka wekodzero yemuiti uye kodzero yakabatana. Kopirateti uye kodzero dzakabatana dzemuiti dzine chikumbaridzo chepamusoro kuitira kuti kukwidza kukodzero inoenderana nemugadziri wefonogiramu, pamusimboti, ibudirire kana paine kupomerwa kutyora neruzha sampling. Kudzivirirwa kwekodzero, semuenzaniso, chidimbu chinonzwika chinofanirwa kuve 'chakasikwa chenjere'. Iko hakuna chinodikanwa chekudzivirira chakadaro chekuchengetedzwa kwekodzero dzevavakidzani yemugadziri wephonogram.

Muchidimbu, saka, iko kukanganisa kwekodzero yekubereka kana munhu samples a rira nenzira inozivikanwa kune avhareji muteereri wemimhanzi. Nekudaro, Chisungo chechishanu cheCopyright Direction chine zvipingamupinyi zvakati wandei uye zvinosarudzika kune kodzero yekubereka muChinyorwa 5 cheCopyright Direction, kusanganisira yakasarudzika uye kusarudzika kweparody. Inonzwika sampling mune yakajairwa kutengeserana mamiriro haawanzo kufukidzwa neizvi, tichitarisa kune yakasimba yemutemo zvinodiwa.

Mumwe munhu anozviwana ari mumamiriro ezvinhu apo zvidimbu zvenzwi rake zvinotorwa sampuli anofanira kuzvibvunza mubvunzo unotevera:

  • Ko munhu ari kutora sample ane mvumo yekuita izvi kubva kune vane kodzero dzakakodzera here?
  • Muenzaniso wakagadziridzwa here kuti usazivikanwe kune avhareji muteereri wemimhanzi?
  • Muenzaniso unowira pasi pezvimwe zvezvisizvo kana zvisingakwanisi here?

Muchiitiko chekupomerwa mhosva, chiito chinogona kuitwa nenzira dzinotevera:

  • Tumira masamanisi tsamba yekumisa kukanganisa.
    • Nhanho yekutanga ine musoro kana iwe uchida kuti kukanganisa kumire nekukurumidza. Kunyanya kana usiri kutsvaga kukuvadza asi uchingoda kuti kukanganisa kumire.
  • Kurukurai nemunhu anonzi akanganisa zvakajeka muenzaniso.
    • Inogona kunge iri nyaya yekuti anopomerwa mhosva haana nemaune, kana kuti asina kufunga kaviri, kukanganisa kodzero dzemumwe munhu. Muchiitiko ichocho, uyo anopomerwa mhosva anogona kuendeswa kumatare uye kujekeswa kuti kukanganisa kwakaitika. Kubva ipapo, mamiriro anogona kutaurirana kuti apiwe mvumo neane kodzero yekuenzanisa. Semuyenzaniso, kupihwa, muhoro wakakodzera, kana kuti mirawo inogona kudiwa neane kodzero. Iyi nzira yekupa uye kuwana mvumo yekuenzanisa inodaidzwa zvakare kubvumidzwa. Muzviitiko zvakajairika, maitiro aya anoitika kusati kwaitika kukanganisa.
  • Kuvamba dare redzimhosva neanopomerwa mhosva.
    • Chikumbiro chinogona kuendeswa kudare zvichienderana nekutyorwa kwekodzero kana kodzero dzine chekuita. Semuenzaniso, zvinogona kunzi rimwe bato raita zvisiri pamutemo nekutyora (Chinyorwa 3:302 cheDutch Civil Code), kukuvadzwa kunogona kunzi (Chinyorwa 27 cheCA, Chinyorwa 16 ndima 1 yeNRA) uye purofiti. inogona kupihwa (Chinyorwa 27a cheCA, Chinyorwa 16 ndima 2 yeNRA).

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